Стр. 193 упр. 1 a)

The word 'Robot' is missing in all these three sentences.

Стр. 194 упр. 1 b)

The main idea of these laws is that robots must protect people and do not harm people.

Стр. 194 упр. 2 a)

• The author tells the story.
• Doctor Susan Calvin works in cybernetics.
• He wanted to get more information for his feature articles for Independent Press.

Стр. 197 упр. 2 b)

A. — False
B. — True
C. — False
D. — False
E. — True
F. — True
G. — True
H. — True
I. — True
J. — True

Стр. 197 упр. 3

• I would like to create robots like Doctor Calvin because I believe with robots our life becomes easier and more pleasant.
• I think that robots can help people to become better.
• I think that it can be dangerous because even the most intellectual one can malfunction.
• One of the pros is it can make our lives much easier and cons is that anyway it can be dangerous.
• Robot can be given all household jobs, all dirty jobs like cleaning and dusting, jobs at plants and factories, driving jobs and jobs at shops.
• I would like to have my own robot in order to save my time from doing household job.


Belarus is situated in the centre of Europe, and has international borders with five countries: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia. Although a landlocked state, the location has made Belarus an important trade and transport route between Europe and the CIS.
The total land area of Belarus is more than 207,000 square kilometers.
Minsk, the capital of Belarus, is located in the centre of the country.
Minsk today is a modern international city. The first recorded mention of the city goes back to 1067. Over the course of its chequered history, Minsk has been destroyed and rebuilt numerous times, most recently after World War 2, when it was almost completely destroyed.
More than 1.8 million people live in Minsk today. It has excellent transport links including Minsk airport, several major train stations, the Minsk metro underground network, and a well-developed road system.
The country of Belarus is divided into six administrative districts, each centred around a major city: Brest region, Gomel region, Grodno region, Minsk region, Mogilev region, Vitebsk region.

History of Art in Belarus

Belarus enjoys a rich cultural and artistic heritage that dates back many centuries, taking in several significant schools of art and architecture and producing many unique musical and literary works. All surviving masterpieces are now officially protected by the state, and showcased for all to enjoy in museum collections and libraries. Classic works of Belarusian music and drama are regularly staged in concert halls and theatres across the country.
Modern-day art culture in Belarus is equally varied and dynamic. There are numerous art exhibitions, musicals, theatrical performances and cinema festivals — all of which are easily accessible to Belarusians and visitors alike.

Fine Art in Belarus

Fine art in Belarus varies in style, direction and genre. The most captivating work by Belarus artists in different periods can be seen in museums across the country. The largest collection of works of art are in the National Museum of Art, which actively promotes national art. Exhibitions by local artists are regularly held here. Other prominent museums across the country are the Vitebsk Art Museum, Mogilev regional Art Museum and the Polotsk art gallery. The history of art in Belarus can be traced back to Byzantine influences in the 14th century, which saw the emergence of iconography and manuscript illustration.
After the October Revolution in Russia in 1917, the northern Belarus town of Vitebsk became the centre for the revolutionary avant-garde movement.
Marc Chagall, one of the most famous Belarusians, was born in Vitebsk in 1887 and founded an art school in the city.
The vast collection of the National Museum of Art in Minsk features the works of Belarusian artists from the 17th to the 20th century, as well as 15th-century iconography.

Famous Belarusians

From medieval saints to modern-day Nobel scientists and Olympic champions, Belarus has produced many famous people

Famous Belarusians from history

Barbara Radziwill
Grand Duchess, Queen of Poland

Lev Sapega
A political and military figure, the Hetman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a diplomat, a philosopher. One of the main founders of the Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1588), which was actually the first European Constitution.

Tadeusz Kosciuszko
Born in Belarus in 1746, Kosciuszko is considered a national hero in America, Belarus and Poland for his leadership in the American Revolutionary War and the uprising against Imperial Russia and the Prussian Empire in 1794.

Famous people from science

Sofia Kovalevskaya
The first female Professor of Mathematics, descended from the Belarusian noble family. At the age of 18 Sofia entered into a fictive marriage to move abroad and to do science. She is the author of numerous papers on mathematical analysis, mechanics and astronomy.

Pavel Sukhoi
An aerospace engineer, an inventor, one of the creators of supersonic jets, a designer of more than 50 original aircraft solutions, more than 30 of which have been constructed and tested. Born in 1895, in the town of Glubo-koye, Vitebsk Region.

Zhores Alf erov
Born in Vitebsk in 1930, Alferov won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2000.

Famous cosmonauts from Belarus:

Petr Klimuk
Petr Klimuk, the first Belarusian cosmonaut; a researcher in technical sciences; twice Hero of the Soviet Union. Born in Komarovka village, Brest region, in 1942. Made three space flights as a member of spaceship and orbital space station missions. Spent a total of 78.76 days in space.

Vladimir Kovalenok
Born near Minsk in 1942, Kovalenok trained as a pilot and became a celebrated cosmonaut in the Soviet Union. He commanded 3 space missions and was twice declared a Hero of the Soviet Union.

Belarusians from the arts

A painter, a composer. Napoleon Orda was born in the village of Vorocev-ichi, Pinsk Uyezd (District). Napoleon Orda made more than 1,000 sketches of the buildings in Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, France, which has become a priceless source of information for architects and restorers in Europe. In 2007, Napoleon Orda's 200th anniversary was added to the UNESCO Memorial Calendar List.

Ivan Khrutsky
Born in the village of Ulla, Lepel Uyezd (District), Vitebsk Province. A distinguished painter known for his own painting style, a mixture of still lives and portraits. Ivan Khrutsky's 200th anniversary was inscribed into the UNESCO Memorial Calendar List in 2010.

Famous politicians from Belarus

Andrei Gromyko
A diplomat, the USSR Minister of Foreign Affairs (1957-1985). Head of the Soviet delegation at a UN founding conference which worked out the UN Charter. Born in the village of Starye Gromyki (Vetka District, Gomel Region).

Sporting heroes from Belarus

Alexander Medved
Belarusian sportsman and trainer (freestyle wrestling). Olympic Champion (1964, 1968, 1972) and World Champion (1962,1963, 1966, 1967, 1969-1971). He is recognised as the best freestyle wrestler of the XX century.

Olga Korbut
The legendary gymnast won 4 Olympic Gold medals (three of them at the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972). In 1972 Korbut was named Best Sportswoman in the World.

Vitaly Shcherbo
A Belarusian sportsman (artistic gymnastics). Gold medal winner at the XXV Olympic Games (Spain, 1992). The bronze medal winner at the XXVI Olympic Games (USA, 1996). World Champion 14 times, European Champion 10 times. Winner of the Good-will games (USA, 1990). Champion of Univer-sidad (1993, 1995).

Maxim Mirnyi
Maxim Mirnyi is the most famous Belarusian tennis player. He has won a series of international doubles titles and has led the Belarus national team to its best-ever result in the Davis Cup.

Victoria Azarenka
Women's Tennis Association (WTA) World No. 1, September 2012.

Darya Domracheva
The bronze medalist in the women's 15km individual race at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver. The winner of the Biathlon Award 2010 (Female Athlete of the Year).

Influences of both eastern and western cultures are reflected in the diverse architectural styles of Belarus churches, castles, palaces and fortresses Belarusian architecture through the ages
Despite its turbulent history of war and destruction, many architectural treasures and attractions of Belarus have survived to tell the history of this fascinating country.
Some of the oldest buildings of Belarus date from the Middle Ages. Artistic movements and religions have played their part in shaping the architecture of Belarus, with fine examples of Romanesque and Gothic, Baroque and Classicism, Modernism and Eclecticism to be found across the country. Architecture in the Brest region
Brest fortress is the main architectural tourist attraction in the city of Brest. It dates back to 1830s. Other noteworthy buildings include: St Simeon's Orthodox Cathedral, an example of architecture of pseudo-Russian style (1865), Roman Catholic Church of Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Vozdvizhenie Sviatogo Kresta) (1856), Railway station, an example of architecture of the Pseudo-Russian style (1886).
The Grodno region offers the visitor a wealth of ancient and beautiful buildings to discover and enjoy.
The unique architectural monuments of Grodno include: Borisoglebsky (Kalozhskaya) church, an example of Old Russian architecture (2nd half of 12th Century)
Royal Palace, an example of rococo architecture (1734-1751) Church of St. Franziska Ksaverij, an example of baroque architecture (late 17th — 18th Century).
Franciscan monastery, an example of baroque architecture (18th Century). In the Grodno the most prominent remaining ancient castles are: Mir Castle, a UNESCO world heritage site — one of the famous castles in Belarus and an outstanding example of defensive architecture (16th Century)
Lida Castle (14th - 15th Century).

Holidays. Customs and Traditions
Apart from the official holidays in Belarus there are also popular ancient national holidays:

6-7 July: Kupalle — Celebrated over the entire night of 6 July, this holiday is accompanied by songs, dances and traditions such as fire-jumping and night swims.

National holidays when all offices are closed:

1 January: New Year
7 January: Orthodox Christmas
8 March: Women's Day
9th day after Orthodox Easter: Radonitsa
1 May: Labour Day
9 May: Victory Day
3 July: Independence Day
7 November: October Revolution Day
25 December: Catholic Christmas