Стр. 178 упр. 1 a)

1. A castle is a properly fortified military residence. Why were castles built? Initially, they were designed and built to hold down conquered territory. They also served to intimidate and strike fear into the local peoples, were places of refuge, and places for the lords to live. They were also impressive symbols of the power and wealth of their owners. When were castles built? Norman castles were built from the 11th to 13th centuries.

2. The oldest stone castles in Belarus are to be found at Lida, Krevo, No-vogrudok, and Grodno. Lida and Krevo have simple castles of the early and mid-14th century, built on an artificial mound and surrounded by strong walls with few turrets. Novogrudok and Grodno have castles dating from the 12th & 13th centuries which were later rebuilt in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. They were situated high up and had many strong towers.
The Castle at Lida, Grodno Region was founded in 1323 by the Grand Duke Gedimin of Lithuania in order to defend his lands from the Crusaders. During numerous sieges and assaults the inner wooden structure of the castle was completely destroyed & the walls were severely damaged. The two towers at the diagonal corners of the castle were completely destroyed.
The Castle at Novogrudok, Grodno Region is the one of the oldest in Belarus. As early as the 11th to the mid-13th centuries, the wooden walls of the castle were repeatedly stormed by enemy troops and were frequently restored. The later stone walls of the polygonal form had several towers. In the 16th century, the castle had seven towers and was one of the strongest of its time. The castle was badly damaged during the war of Russia with Rzecz Pos-polita (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1654-1667. At the time of the Northern war in 1706, it was burned down by the Swedes.
The Old Castle (Fortress) at Grodno was erected on the site of an 11th C. settlement, on the high, steep bank of the Neman River, at the confluence with the Gorodnichanka River. From the late 13th century, for the next one hundred years, the wooden castle was beseiged many times by the Crusaders. In 1398 the castle was destroyed by fire.

3. The daily life in medieval castles depended on what was going on around them.
Feasting and enjoying food was an important part of medieval life, because during a war there wasn't very much to eat. Nobles had to pay for food and wages for his household. These are some foods people liked in the middle ages; bread was the basic food in the Middle Ages, it could be made with barley, rye, and wheat. Wealthy people used thick slices of brown bread as bowls, (called trenchers) to soak up juice and sauce from the food. Flour made for the castle was ground at the lord's mill. Millers produced different kinds of flour, fine, to make white bread for the king or lord, and course, to make brown bread for the servants. Birds like chickens, geese, and ducks were also popular. On special occasions the wealthy ate swan and peacock. Beef and venison were well liked, so was pork. Mustard was a favorite ingredient. Medieval people liked fish and fresh meat that was not salted yet. Meat was salted in huge wooden vats so that the food would not spoil. Salt was expensive but large quantities were bought every year. Most people eat with their fingers; forks were brought in towards the end of the Middle Ages. Many people thought forks were silly, but everyone had to behave properly at mealtime. There were many rules on the correct way to eat and where people sat at the table. Before 1100 honey was the only way to sweeten food because spices were expensive because they came from the Far East. Cabbage and leeks could be grown in the castle gardens; herbs were used to season food and make remedies for the ill. During medieval ages the Crusaders brought new foods like raisins, dates, and figs to Europe.
Tournaments were a great occasion, they often went on for several days; they attracted lots of visitors. Some of the activities were jousting, archery competitions, sword fights, and wrestling competitions. The main event was a joust. Two men charged on horseback with wooden lances and tried to knock each other off. Both men wore armor and their horses wore richly embroidered cloth. The lances took a lot of skill, because they were long and heavy.

4. William the Conqueror, King Edward II, Anne Boleyn, Radzivil.

5. A watch Tower is for looking carefully around to give signal for starting protection the castle in case of enemy attack. A moat is a deep, wide ditch surrounding a castle, fort, or town, typically filled with water and intended as a defense against attack. A drawbridge is a bridge, esp. one over a castle's moat that is hinged at one end so that it may be raised to prevent people's crossing or to allow vessels to pass under it. A dungeon is a strong underground prison cell. A great hall is the main room of a royal palace, nobleman's castle or a large manor house or hall house in the Middle Ages, and in the country houses of the 16th and early 17th centuries. A fortress is a military stronghold, esp. a strongly fortified town fit for a large garrison.

Стр. 178 упр. 2 a) b) Listening.

Стр. 179 упр. 3 a) b)

1. — e
2. — f
3. — g
4. — a
5. — h
6. — с
7. — d
8. — b

Стр. 180 упр. 4

1. The words that are underlined are pronouns.
2. We use such pronouns as who, which, that, whose, where.

Стр. 180 упр. 5

1. That lives in Loch Ness.
2. That came from GB.
3. That is located in Windsor.
4. That is used in Scotland.
5. Maori is the name for person that lives in New Zeland.
6. Strine is a broad accent of Australian English.
7. William Windsor is an elder son of Prince Charles and Diana, Princess of Wales.

Стр. 180 упр. 6 a)

• Mir Castle is a unique monument of Belarusian architecture, it was built by duke Ilinich in early 16th century near village Mir (Grodno Region) instead of wooden feudal farmstead, which existed there in 15th century.

This is a square-planned building with towers at the corners. The fifth tower had a drawbridge and a forged grille chersa which could urgently stop a sudden attack. The castle was well adapted for gunshot defense. Its walls had two rows of loop-holes, and its towers were intended for heavy cannon shooting from them.
The basis of the volumetric castle's composition is its high towers which jut out beyond the wall-line. All of them have the same structure — tetra-hedral core with octahedral top, but they differently decorated which gives original decorative value and beauty to the castle.
The representational means, characteristic for Belarusian Gothic, were used for plastic decoration of the Mir Castle: Gothic bricklaying (alternation of long and short sides of bricks) with walled up bricks, division of walls with plastered niches of various forms ornamental brick belts.
Since 1568 the Mir Castle was owned by Dukes Radziwils, who finished its building in Renaissance style. A three-storied palace was built along the eastern and northern walls. Its plastered facades were decorated with limestone portals, plates, balconies and porches. During excavations they collected a lot of glazed tiles with vegetable and geometrical ornaments, and coats of arms of the castle's owners.
Earth walls were made around the castle with bastions at the corners; a water moat surround them. To the north of the walls an Italian garden was laid, to the south - an artificial lake.
Despite numerous destruction's (the heaviest were during 1812 war) the Mir Castle survived till now; and at present it is being successfully restored. This monument is under UNESCO's auspices.

• Draniki is a belarusian style shallow fried potato pancakes made of grated potatoes. It is a traditional belarusian dish still very popular in present day Belarus.

• Yanka Bryl was a Belarusian writer best known for his short stories. Bryl's first story appeared in 1938 and his first short story collection appeared in 1946. The first collection of stories was called Apaviadan-ni (Stories). Bryl's books are mostly works of psychological fiction and his characters tend to be sensitive and prone to introspection. They were largely set in Belarusian villages and frequently about the people's fight against the Nazis.

Bryl was one of the older generation of Soviet writers who had begun their literary careers in Stalin's time but received a new lease on life in the late 1950s along with such contemporaries as Ivan Shamiakin and Ivan Mielezh.
He was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1952 and the Jakub Kolas Literature Prize in 1963. In 1981, he was awarded the honorific title of People's Writer of the Byelorussian SSR and in 1994 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.