Стр. 124, упр. 1 a)

The woman on the photograph is Queen Elizabeth II. Elizabeth II is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states, known as the Commonwealth realms, and their territories and dependencies, and head of the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations. Born: April 21,1926 (age 86), Mayfair, London.
Full name: Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Spouse: Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947) Parents: Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, George VI of the United Kingdom Children: Charles, Prince of Wales, Anne, Princess Royal, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex Siblings: Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon

Стр. 124, упр. 2 a)

• I don't think it's easy to be a queen because it's a great responsibility and you are always in the public eye.
• Actually I have never thought about the Queen's daily routine but I think that she starts her day quite early and have much time to spare.
• If I were a queen my timetable would be like that in the filled box below.

Стр. 124, упр. 2 b)

Стр. 127, упр. 4

• Comparing my timetable with Queen Elizabeth II's daily routine I can say that there are not so many differences.
• The fact that nobody can present in the garden while Queen is walking through it surprised me most of all.
• I've never thought that it's easy to be a queen.
• Actually I would like to lead such a lifestyle because it's very noble to be the Queen and in such a lifestyle there are no two days that are ever the same.


1. General
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of Great Britain. Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland. The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244 square kilometres. His the 75th place among other countries in the world. The population is over 55 million. About 80% of the population is urban. The capital of the country is London.

2. Geographical position and physical features
The surface of Great Britain varies greatly. The northern and western part of the country is mountains and is called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and centre) is a vast plain which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The rivers are not long. The most important of them are the Severn and the Thames. There are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous parts of the country.

3. Climate
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain.
The weather in GB is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening and the wrong side out. The English people say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.
The best time of the year in GB is spring(of course, it rains in spring too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer.

4. National economy
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of iron and steel products, machinery and electronics, chemicals and textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The most famous educational centres are Oxford and Cambridge universities. They are considered to be the intellectual centres of Europe. The education is not free, it is very expensive.

5. Politic system
The United Kingdom is a monarchy and the Queen is the head of state. But in practice it is ruled by the elected government with a Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the London, the Conservative and the Liberal parties, The Conservative party is the ruling party nowadays.

6. Customs and traditions
Almost every nation has a reputation of some kind. The English are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather haughty people. They are steady, easygoing and fond of sports. There are certain kinds of behavior, manners and customs which are peculiar to England.
The English are naturally polite and are never tired of saying 'Thank you 'and 'I am sorry'. They are generally disciplined, you never hear loud talk in the street. They don't rush for seats in buses and trains, but they take their seats in queues at bus stops. English people do not shake hands when meeting one another, they do not show their emotions even in tragic situations. They seem to remain good-tempered and cheerful under difficulties.
The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home. The Englishman says ' My house is my castle ' because he doesn't wish his doings to be overlooked by his neighbours. It is true that English people prefer small houses, built for one family. The fire is the focus of the English Home. Other nations go out to cafes or cocktail bars. The fireplace is the natural centre of interest in the room. They like to sit round the fire and watch the dancing flames, exchanging the day's experience. In many houses you will still see fireplaces, sometimes with columns on each side and a shelf above it on which there is often a clock or a mirror or photos.
The love of gardens is deep-rooted in the British people. Most men's conversations are about gardens. It may be a discussion of the best methods of growing cucumbers, a talk about the plot which differs from all the others.
Britain is a nation of animal lovers. They have about five million dogs, almost as many cats, 3 million parrots and other cage birds, aquarium fish - and 1 million exotic pets such as reptiles. In Britain they have special dog shops selling food, clothes and other things for dogs. There are dog hair-dressing saloons and dog cemeteries. There are special animal hotels at the airports. The English people believe that they are the only nation on the earth that is really kind to its animals.
Saturday evening is the best time for parties, dances, going to the cinema or theatre.
Tea is part of the prose of British life, as necessary as potatoes and bread. Seven cups of it wake you up in the morning, 9 cups will put you to sleep at night.

7. Famous people.
There are many outstanding people in Great Britain. Britain produced statesmen, thinkers, explorers, musicians, writers, scientists and other people who are well known around the world.
Isaac Newton one of the greatest men in the history of science was born in a little village in the middle of the 17th century. He studded math at Cambridge University. Newton's contribution to physics astronomy and math is so great that, he may be considered the founder of the mordent mathematics and physics. He discovered the law of motion and the universal law of gravitation. He studded the nature of light and colour and came to the conclusion that white colour consists of many different colours known as spectrum. He died when he was 84 and was burred at Westminster Abbey.
Charles Darwin was born in the beginning of the 19th century. He was a great biologist. He created a new theory of evolution. Once there were only simple organisms living in the seas, hundreds millions of years they have developed to produce all the different kind animals and plants we knew today.
Michael Faraday was born at the end of the 17th century. He was interested in electricity very much and spent long months studding this strange force. He discovered that electricity passed from the magnet to the wires and cowbell become a strong electric current. So he opened many laws of electricity and magnetism.
Lord Rutherford the great pioneer of nuclear physics received the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his investigations into decay of elements chemistry of radiated substances.
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1929.

8. Sights to see
There are a lot of places of interest in London. Among them there are: Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace, St Paul's Cathedral, London Bridge, the Tower of London.
London stands on the river Thames. Crossing the river by the Tower Bridge you can see the Tower of London. It is one of the oldest buildings of the city. Many centuries ago it was a fortress, a royal palace and then a prison. Now it is a museum of arms.
On the bank of the Thames, not far from the Tower of London, you can see Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament. It is the seat of the British government and it is one of the most beautiful buildings in London. In one of its towers there is famous Big Ben, the largest clock of England. It strikes every quarter of an hour.
Buckingham Palace is the Queen's official London residence. Tourists always go to see the ceremony of changing the Guard there.
London has many fine squares. Some of them are quiet, others are busy like Trafalgar Square. Trafalgar Square is the central square of the city. To the right of the square there is the National Gallery which has a fine collection of European paintings.
St Paul's Cathedral is the biggest English church. Another famous church is Westminster Abbey where kings, queens, and many famous people are buried.
London is also famous for its beautiful parks. Hyde Park is the most democratic park in the world, as anyone can say anything he likes there. Regent's Park is the home of London Zoo.